GIs toolbox

Bibliography

Arcadia International, Study on the state of play of sustainability initiatives in the wine appellation sector, Report for the European Federation of Origin Wines (EFOW) (2022)

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The present study was commissioned to Arcadia International E.E.I.G. by the European Federation of Origin Wines (EFOW), which members are Conferencia Española de Consejos Reguladores Vitivinícolas (CECRV), Confédération Nationale des producteurs de vins et eaux de vie de vin à Appellations d’Origine Contr [...]

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The present study was commissioned to Arcadia International E.E.I.G. by the European Federation of Origin Wines (EFOW), which members are Conferencia Española de Consejos Reguladores Vitivinícolas (CECRV), Confédération Nationale des producteurs de vins et eaux de vie de vin à Appellations d’Origine Contrôlées (CNAOC), Confederazione Nazionale dei Consorzi Volontari per la Tutela delle Denominazioni dei Vini Italiani (Federdoc), and Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto (IVDP), in partnership with the German winegrowers’ association Deutscher Weinbauverband e.V (DWV). The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the initiatives undertaken or available to the wine appellation sector to address sustainability. This report presents the results of the study based on the work carried out by the study team during the period June 2021- January 2022. It is structured as follows:

● Section 1 presents the objectives and the scope of the study taking into account the specifications drafted by EFOW and DWV;

● Section 2 describes the overall methodological approach applied to reach the objectives of the study and the workplan;

● Section 3 provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge and practices in the field of sustainability in the wine sector;

● Section 4 presents the main findings of the study with regard to the sustainability practices currently implemented or available to producer groups of protected designation of origin (PDO) wines in the five main producing European countries on which the research primarily focused on;

● Section 5 considers and discusses the main challenges and impacts that the EU’s sustainability agenda poses to the wine appellation sector;

● Section 6 considers and discusses the policy options available to the wine appellation sector to further contribute to the implementation of the EU’s sustainability agenda; and,

● Section 7 finally presents the main conclusions of the study

oriGIn position paper on Distinctive Geographical Names in the United States (US) (2022)

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The US is one of the few countries in the world that does not provide an independent system to recognize and protect GIs. Several schemes are available for that purpose (in some cases they might overlap, as a product’s name might benefit from more than one of them). The [...]

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The US is one of the few countries in the world that does not provide an independent system to recognize and protect GIs. Several schemes are available for that purpose (in some cases they might overlap, as a product’s name might benefit from more than one of them).

The above-mentioned situation does not serve legal certainty and rather raises practical issues for the American private actors relying on geographical names for their business, as well as for consumers.

In its position paper oriGIn is willing to engage with the US stakeholders (both public authorities and the private sector), presenting several proposals.

Penker M., Scaramuzzi S., Edelmann H., Belletti G., Marescotti A., Casabianca F., Qui˜nones-Ruiz X., Polycentric structures nurturing adaptive food quality governance – Lessons learned from geographical indications in the European Union, Journal of Rural Studies 89 (2022) 208–221 (2022)

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In contrast to harmonised international food quality standards, local producers of food that is protected as geographical indication can adapt production rules. In a comparative multi-method case study approach, we analyse how constitutional and collective choice rules affect the negotiation of diverse interests and the adaptability of food quality standards [...]

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In contrast to harmonised international food quality standards, local producers of food that is protected as geographical indication can adapt production rules. In a comparative multi-method case study approach, we analyse how constitutional and collective choice rules affect the negotiation of diverse interests and the adaptability of food quality standards in France, Italy and Austria. In France, a national organisation with a plurality of technical expertise guarantees the coherence of geographical indications based on notions of terroir and heritage. Italy’s rural development approach secures very elaborated voting rules for producer groups and broader interaction on the regional level to accomplish broadly legitimated decisions. In the Austrian intellectual property rights approach, producers self-define the constitutional and collective choice rules and have the fullest
autonomy and responsibility in standard setting. We conclude that polycentric interlinkages across scales and sectors – though delaying adaptation – support the long-term conservation of the products’ identity via broad legitimisation. Both, the autonomy of local producers to innovatively adapt to change as well as a strong product identity are key for the long-term viability of geographical indications.

Flinzberger, L., Zinngrebe, Y., Bugalho, M.N. et al. EU-wide mapping of ‘Protected Designations of Origin’ food products (PDOs) reveals correlations with social-ecological landscape values. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 42, 43 (2022)

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The Geographical Indications (GIs) scheme is the EU’s primary policy tool for increasing the market values of geographically distinct food products. Although GIs are linked to the landscapes of food production, little is known about the social-ecological values they represent, mainly due to a lack of spatial data. In [...]

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The Geographical Indications (GIs) scheme is the EU’s primary policy tool for increasing the market values of geographically distinct food products. Although GIs are linked to the landscapes of food production, little is known about the social-ecological values they represent, mainly due to a lack of spatial data. In this study, we, therefore, mapped all 638 food products labeled as Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs), using NUTS-3 areas as proxies for their actual extent, and correlated their distribution with 13 social-ecological indicators. By compiling this novel dataset, we show that the presence of PDOs strongly overlaps with environmental and cultural values. We reveal positive correlations of PDO frequency with high nature value farmland, semi-natural agriculture, tourism, and cultural heritage indicators. Further, we find that PDOs occur more often in economically weaker areas with older and declining populations. Besides differences in PDO distribution between northern and southern EU countries, we find different correlation patterns across the four largest food categories. For example, cheese and meat products are less correlated to environmental values compared to oils and fats, or fruit, vegetables and cereals. On that basis, we identify the potential of PDOs to support structurally deprived areas and propose PDOs as entry points for sustainable transformation and rural development policies—while simultaneously contributing to the conservation of cultural landscapes and their associated environmental values. As outlined in the Green Deal of the European Union and its Farm to Fork strategy, PDOs should be a part of this transformation. Based on the results of this study, we discuss more specifically for which production systems and under what enabling conditions PDOs are fit for this challenge. We recommend that future governance interventions for a sustainable transformation of EU’s agriculture should take the differences across regions and product categories into account.

Zappalaglio A., Study on the Functioning of the EU GI System, 2022, (together with Suelen Carls et al.) (2022)

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This study is the largest empirical work on the functioning of EU agricultural GIs and it aims to provide more insight into the practical nature, functioning and foundations of the EU sui generis GI regime for the protection of agricultural products and foodstuffs.

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This study is the largest empirical work on the functioning of EU agricultural GIs and it aims to provide more insight into the practical nature, functioning and foundations of the EU sui generis GI regime for the protection of agricultural products and foodstuffs.